Yan Driya Samodra, Danar Widiyanta M.Hum.


This study aims to investigate the geographical, social, economic, and political conditions in before Dutch Aggression II. Besides, it aims to investigate Magelang people’s roles in defending the independence of the Republic of Indonesia and the impacts of Dutch Military Aggression II in 1948-1949.

This thesis employed the research method consisting of five stages according to Kuntowijoyo to reconstruct history and used the multidimensional approach to investigate the social conditions. The stages were: (1) topic selection, (2) heuristics or source collection, (3) verification or source criticisms, (4) interpretation, and (5) historiography. The data sources included books, archives, and supporting documents.

The findings from the study of Magelang in the struggle era were as follows. Magelang City was a strategic city. Besides being a connecting line among big cities in Central Java, Magelang City was also surrounded by fertile mountains and hills. Such conditions were beneficial to Magelang people to carry out the guerilla strategy as an effort to defend the independence of the Republic of Indonesia. In Dutch Military Aggression II in 1948-1949, Magelang people took part actively in defending the independence by helping to carry Indonesian National Army’s weapons and by being involved in bridge and road destructions to hinder the Dutch troops that entered the Magelang area. The people also took part in the provision of public kitchens and foods and provided hidden places for the guerillas. After Dutch Military Aggression II, the government of Magelang City did not run smoothly. This was caused by the destruction of all government buildings in Magelang due to the scorched earth strategy so that the government center continually moved from house to house in villages.


Keywords: Magelang, Independence of Republic of Indonesia, 1948-1949

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